All posts by Niranjan Kamath

Karkal Teru

Normally I would have provided a brief prelude to our Sri Venkataraman Devasthan – Karkala before writing about the auspicious Theru that starts May 1st-May 5th, 2022. That said keeping in mind how big this write-up would be, I decided to first talk about the Theru.

Did you know the Karkala Theru may have started 295 years ago in the year 1827. This is an annual festival that happens during April – May in the Honour of our Lord Srinivasa. It lasts for 6 days with different rituals on each day.

Day 1

The day starts with Vishnu Sahasranamam chanted by the priests followed by Dhwajarohana. Dhwajarohana includes a silver flag that has the Lord’s face on it that is hoisted on the Dhwajasthambha. This marks the start of Theru. This is followed by Suthubali which includes the procession of the idol around the temple. This starts in the evening. The day ends with dinner provided to the whole town after giving offerings to the Lord.

Day 2

Day 2 consists of the same thing except Dhwajarohana. There is Suthubali, Samradhane (the feast to town people) and evening prayers.

Day 3

The day has Suthubali after which the Lord is taken to every house near the temple and placed in front of the Tulsi plant. This is known as Katte pooja. The Lord is brought back to the Temple. The day ends with Samradhane again. These dinners are sponsored by some or the other family every year

Day 4

This day includes Suthubali again. Suthubali happens all the 5 days in the evening. This is followed by Sanmana javan, which translates to honouring the guests. The feast of this day includes special dishes. Every married woman is given Turmeric and Sindoor. Warm sandalwood paste is put on men and kids. While feasting, the people are also fanned with a huge hand fan. This is followed by Mriga bete. Mriga bete translates to deer hunting. People go to Ramasamudra and a man (belonging to the family that has been doing this ritual for years) holds the bow and arrow and hits a wick.(earlier it was supposed to be a deer but now they just hit a wick). After this, before bringing the idol back to the temple, it is placed in Padmavati Temple for sometime. Later after reaching the temple, small chariot (ratha) is pulled for procession with the lord’s idol in it. This day is called “Sanu Theru” or small Theru.

Day 5

This is the most critical day of Theru, hence called the “Hodu” or big theru. After Suthubali, the idol is brought out and is again revolved around the Brahma ratha (the main ratha). The idol is put on the chariot and flowers of gold, silver and bronze are thrown to the crowd gathered near the ratha. The procession starts from the temple and continues only for a few steps. This is followed by the Samradhane. Stalls of food, toys and accessories are put across the streets. Everything from earrings to ice cream is sold at this fair. At midnight, the ratha is pulled by all the people (mostly men) till Gopura and is brought back after Pooja.

Day 6

The most fun of all the 6 days is the last day where people play Okulu. Before this, the Silver flag is brought down from the Dhwajastambha marking the end of Theru. Okulu is the same as Holi. People throw turmeric water on each other and also bathe the idol in it. After playing, everyone goes to Ramasamudra and takes a bath in the water there.

Ref: https://www.svtkarkala.com/

Goem Bab Waman Varde Valaulikar

Before I let you know why I am writing about Waman Varde Valaulikar let me first tell you who he is, where did he live and what did he do.

Waman Shenoi was born on 23 June 1877 at Bicholim, Goa. He attended primary school in Marathi till 6th standard and then joined a Portuguese primary school, where he completed Fourth Standard. After discontinuing studies due to financial constraints, he taught himself Sanskrit and English at home. He went to Mumbai in 1893 and continued with his studies there, completing High School in 1898. He was married to Shantabai in Mumbai and had two sons and two daughters.

It is believed that he earned the nickname “Goembab” when he was going along with his uncle Chintamanrao to Mumbai aboard a steamer. A friend on board the ship remarked to his uncle “I hear you are taking this Goembab (Gentleman from Goa) with you to Mumbai.” The young and idealistic Waman later used “Shennoi Goembab” as his penname.

Waman Varde had started writing in Konkani at the time he was working in Mumbai. His wife was illiterate but had a very good knowledge of Konkani language and folklore. He made her recite the tales and proverbs and put them in writing which were published later. “Goenkaaranchi Goianbhaili Vosnook” (Goan migrants outside Goa) was a series of history lectures given by Shenoi Goembab at the Saraswat Brahman Samaj, Mumbai, in 1927. Another historical book he wrote was “Albuquerquan Goen Koshem Jiklem” (How Albuquerque Won Goa).

“Mhoji Baa Khuin Gelli?” is regarded as the first modern Konkani short story. It was published in “Gomantopnishat”,   which is a two-volume collection of fiction and non-fiction. The second volume contained “Sonvsar Budti” (The drowning of the world). It used the story of the Great Flood to discuss various philosophies and includes parts from various religious works.

According to him the only way Konkani language can be popularized is, if it is brought about by its youth. This was revealed in his essays “Amrutacho Pavs” (The Rain of Nectar) and “Konkani Vidyarthiank” (For Konkani Students) Infact one of his major contributions was towards children’s literature. “Bhurgianche Vyakran” (Children’s Grammar) was written in a series of question-answers that he used to teach his son and “Bhurgianlo Ishtt” was a collection of short stories.

He also translated many works into Konkani the chief among them being Molière‘s Le Médecin malgré lui, which he translated as “Mogachen Logn” (Love Marriage) and Shakespeare‘s OthelloHamlet and King Lear.  He is most remembered for his translation of the Bhagavad Gita into Konkani: “Bhagwantalem Geet“.

In an autobiographical reference, Goembab credits the Barão de Cumbarjua (Baron of Cumbarjua), Tomás Morão, with opening his eyes to the fact that it was Konkani, and not Marathi, which was the mother-tongue of Goans. In anecdote he recounts in Konkani Bhashechem Zoit, Goembab indicates that in about 1899, he had written a book “O Mestre Portugués” for use in the Marathi-Portuguese schools that had been established by the Estado da Índia in Goa since 1871. In that book, Goembab indicates that he had introduced lessons covering grammatical rules, meanings of words and sentences for teaching the art of translation.

He had observed how Konkani had diminished in status among Goans and Marathi and Portuguese had taken the place of respect among the educated, upper class Hindus and Christians respectively. Konkani was used only to communicate with their employees, the poor and downtrodden castes.

He believed that no matter how many languages a person could communicate in to earn a living, he was lost if he could not communicate in his mother tongue, the “language of your soul” as he called it.[1] “We have been shining under others’ lamps”, observed Shenoi Goembab. He began telling Konkanis about the sweetness of their mother tongue and of its rich past. He started writing books to propagate his views. Not only did he see the Konkani language as an inseparable part of every Goan’s and Konkani’s identity. He also saw it as a movement against Portuguese rule in Goa. Shenoi Goembab wrote 7 books in the Roman script and 22 in Devanagari. This included short stories, dramas novels, poetry, essays, linguistics, philosophy history.

Konkani language was in decline, due to the use of Portuguese as the official and social language among the Christians, the predominance of Marathi over Konkani among Hindus, and the Konkani Christian-Hindu divide. Seeing this, Vaman Raghunath Varde Valaulikar set about on a mission to unite all Konkanis, Hindus as well as Christians, regardless of caste or religion. He saw this movement as a nationalistic movement against Portuguese rule. Almost single-handedly he crusaded, writing a number of works in Konkani. He is regarded as the pioneer of modern Konkani literature.

Some of his notable works are as under:

  1. Goenkaaranchi Goianbhaili Vosnook (Goan migrants outside Goa)
  2. Albuquerquan Goen Koshem Jiklem
  3. Mhoji Baa Khuin Gelli?
  4. Sonvsar Budti
  5. Amrutacho Pavs (The Rain of Nectar)
  6. Konkani Vidyarthiank (For Konkani Students)
  7. Bhurgianche Vyakran (Children’s Grammar)
  8. Bhurgianlo Ishtt was a collection of short stories.
  9. Mogachen Logn (Love Marriage) and 
  10. Shakespeare‘s Othello Hamlet and King Lear.  
  11. Bhagwantalem Geet (Bhagwat Geeta in Konkani

Shenoi Goembab was ahead of his time and often stressed on the need to eliminate caste barriers and get the lower castes educated. He said, “let’s make Pandits (scholars) out of Gawdes (farmers)”. In a short span of about 69 years Waman Shenoi did so much for Konkani’s. No other Amchigello has ever achieved so much for Konkani’s as him. Kudos to his dedication and a spark of activism that stayed on during his entire life.

Despite all the financial hurdles he faced, his efforts for the language of Konkani are why we all are still speaking this beautiful language. It has also been the precursor for being recognised as the State language in Gomantak or Goa today. One can also say that all this and more resulted in Konkani being recognized as one of the 29 official languages of India.

His death anniversary, 9 April, is celebrated as World Konkani Day (Vishwa Konkani Divas. So this April 9th don’t forget to cherish these memories.

Shenoi Goembab was posthumously awarded the Konkani Person of the Millennium award by Mandd Sobhann (a Mangalore based Konkani organisation), on his 54th death anniversary.

Proud to be a Konkani

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The Divine Number 9

Every Hindu must be proud of Sanatana Dharma. Since times memorial our Ancient Sages have scripted this religious order as a Science more than a Religion,

As mentioned in my last article on the number 108, it is said that this is a divine number that compromises of the 12 Rashi’s X 9 Grahas. This simply embodies what we call the circle of life. Now let’s dig deeper into these numbers. Both 9 and 12 are intricately connected to Santana Dharma.  In this article let’s focus on the number 9.

When you add up the divine number 108 as 1+0+8 it equals 9.

The number 9 is revered in Hinduism and considered a complete number because it represents the end of a cycle in the decimal system, which originated from the Indian subcontinent as early as 3000 BC. 9 is a very important number for geometry, architecture and angles. It is said there are Nine influencers that are an integral part of Indian astrology. According to our Hindu philosophy, there are nine universal substances or elements: Earth, Water, Air, Fire, Ether, Time, Space, Soul, and Mind.

Navaratri is a nine-day festival dedicated to the nine forms of Durga.

Navaratna, meaning “nine jewels” may also refer to Navaratnas – accomplished courtiers, Navratan – a kind of dish, or a form of architecture.

The number nine is often associated with a divine connotation in the mystical thought and religions across the globe from ancient times.

Our scriptures talk about Goddess Durga the divine female power synonymous with creator of the universe, the embodiment of pristine purity and truth, annihilated the demons representing the evil forces.

Goddess Durga waged a war for nine days to combat the potent rakshasas (satanic power) and bestow deliverance to the world in general.

In Santana Dharma, Rishi Vyas created 9 Puranas, 108 Maha Purana (Upanishads). Our ancient Rishi’s have written that are 4 Yugas. Now when we look at the number of years each Yug lasted and add up all the numbers, yet again we land on Nine.

Satyayug – consists of 172,800 years (1 7 2 = 18 = (1+ 8 = 9)

TretaYug consists of 1296000 years (1 2 9 6) = 18 = (1+ 8 = 9)

DwaparYug consists of 864000 years (8 4 6) = 18 = (1 + 8 = 9)

Kalyug consists of 432000 years (4 3 2) = 9

According to Sanatana Dharma, a Healthy Person normally takes 21600 breaths in a day which again gives Number 9 after summing up (2 1 6=9). In Hindu astronomy we recognize nine planets, collectively knows as Navagraha’s, whose movements and configuration we believe would affect the lives and destinies or the state (graham) of beings in different worlds. These nine planets are the Sun (Surya), the Moon (Chandra), Mars (Managala), Mercury (Budha), Jupiter (Brihaspathi), Venus (Sukra), Saturn (Sani), Rahu and Ketu. However, in the temples they all are worshipped collectively or as a group and very rarely alone.

In addition, our Hindu Astronomy speaks of   27 constellations in our galaxy, and each one of them has 4 directions, and 27 * 4 = 108(1 0 8=9), In other words the number 108 covers the whole galaxy.

Our Astrologers consider Number 9 as the number of Brahma, the Creator.

Now let’s get to Geometry and angles: A Circle degree is 360 which is further (3 6=9).

If you multiply nine by any whole number (except zero), and repeatedly add the digits of the answer until it’s just one digit, you will end up with nine. Go ahead and try the Nine tables that we used to repeat every day.

2 × 9 = 18 (1 8 = 9); 3 x 9 = 27 (2 7=9)

What is it about Nine that is so unique? All of the above reasons make Nine a Divine Number in Sanatana Dharma.

On a more spiritual angle the Bhagavata purana mentions nine forms of devotion: sravanam (hearing about God), kirtanam (singing the praise of God), mananam (remembering God), padaseva (serving the feet of God), archanam (worshiping God), mantram (offering prayers to God), seva (serving the cause of God), maitri (friendship with God) and saranam (surrender to God).

The human body is considered as a city of nine gates which correspond with the nine openings (two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, navel and two excretory openings). Because atman or the self resides in it, it is also called a temple with nine gates.

In the foundation laying ceremony of a temple construction, it is a tradition to place nine jewels and nine forms of grains (Navadhanyas) in the earth where the foundation stone is laid and also where the idols are installed.

No wonder the number nine is associated with a divine connotation in Hinduism from ancient times.

Is this a mere coincidence or is there a deeper connection to this?  Nine seems to be integral part of life and our very existence. Remember the Number 108 that I wrote about in my last article. 9 and 12 are a part and parcel of Santana Dharma. You just have to be amazed by the depths to which our Religion goes. No wonder we say Hinduism is a Way of Life rather than a strict boundary laid out in many other religious orders.

Jai Ho!!! To all our Ancient Rishi’s

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108: Just a Random Number or….

Have you ever wondered why do we have to chant a Mantra 108 times, take 108 pradakshinas around the temple deity? Why is 108 viewed as holy for all Hindus?  You will be amazed when you read this article.

You see 108 is a divine number that is crucial for Life and Death on Planet Earth. The very existence of life on Earth is based on this number 108.  To think our Ancient Sages did not know this is a gross understatement. With all their collective wisdom they laid the foundation of our entire Sanatana Dharma to be a way of life as opposed to just a religious order.  

Is it just a random number or is there a deeper connection to it? Our Ancient Sages attribute a lot of importance to 108.  Now let us dissect this meaningfully.

Amazing aspects of “108”:

There are 108 vital points or marma in a human body according to Ayurveda. Each chant of a Mantra goes through each of those vital points.

Also, in Hinduism, there are 108 Upanishads, the sacred texts of wisdom from ancient sages. Additionally, in the Sanskrit alphabet, there are fifty-four letters. Each letter has a feminine, or Shakti, and masculine, or Shiva, quality. 54 multiplied by 2 equals 108.

There are 12 Raasi’s or astrological houses and 9 Graha’s or Navagraha’s planets.

An average person is said to breathe 21,600 times in a 24-hour period. Half, 10,800, is solar energy (breaths during the day), and the other half is lunar energy (breaths during the night). 100 multiplied with 108 equals 10,800.

The Yog Gurus always tell us that our body contains seven chakras, starting at the top of the head and ending at the base of the spine. Each chakra is said to be an energy center within our body. The heart chakra, located at the exact center of the chest, is associated with transformation and love energy. It is believed that opening this energy center will lead to joy and compassion. Apparently, this heart chakra is also said to have 108 nadi (energy lines) that converge to form this energy center.

River Ganga spans a longitude of approximately 12 degrees (79 to 91) and a latitude of 9 degrees (22 to 31). 12 multiplied by 9 equals 108.

The Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge in the UK has a diameter of 108 feet.

The Brideshwara Temple in the city of Tanjore has a height is 216 ft which is 108×2.

The Koh Ker is the modern name for an important city of the Khmer empire in Cambodia. During the reign, the Kings Jaya Varman IV and Harsha Varman II Koh Ker were briefly the capital of the whole Khmer empire (928–944 AD). Inscriptions in the town mention this city as Lingapura (city of lingams). Koh Ker Pyramid at the time had an impressive Lingam atop this impressive structure. The height of this pyramid    before the Lingam was destroyed was 108 ft

Now for the real interesting part:

If you were to divide the distance between the Earth and Sun by the diameter of the Sun it is approximately equal to 108

If you were to divide the distance between the Earth and the Moon by the diameter of the Moon it is 108

The diameter of the Sun is 108 times the diameter of Earth. The distance from the Sun to Earth is 108 times the diameter of the Sun. The distance from the Earth to Moon is 108 times the diameter of the moon. This is also the reason when you look up in the sky you see the size of the Moon and the Sun as the same. We all know that Sun is at least 400 times larger than the Moon. The Moon should have appeared as a speck in front of the Sun, but what you see every day and during eclipses is vastly different. All of this is attributed to this unique number.

The very existence of life on Earth is because of this unique position of the Earth, Sun, and Moon and the axial tilt of the Earth. Imagine if this was not 108, our existence on this planet would be at severe risk exposing us to catastrophic calamities such as Tsunami, Ice storms, Heatwaves. Very soon this Blue Planet would be like Mars or Venus.

For those Geeks out there, look up the equations to see what you get when you measure the distance to the Sun divided by the diameter of say, Mars or Venus. And do the same with the moons of those planets respectively. The reason why Life does not exist is said to be because of this.

But then you may ask the question is there a planet out there which can sustain Life. Perhaps yes, but certainly not at least in this Solar system. In another Galaxy that may have its own equivalent of a Sun and planets revolving around it, this may be a potential scenario. Again that 108 is crucial to have to sustain life.

When you look up and see the Billions of stars in the galaxy, surely there might be at least one Planet out there that follows this equation.  Who knows the Gods must be watching us from this Planet… aka Swarga / Heaven?

Coming back to why we were not told about going around the deities in a temple 108 times or reciting a mantra or a prayer 108 times; Well, WE SIMPLY NEVER ASKED OUR PRIESTS. But now you know.

If you are a Sanatana Dharma follower, you have to be just AMAZED at how our Ancient Sages knew this when they spun the foundation fabric on Santana Dharma and deemed it as a Way of Life. No wonder Sanatana Dharma regards 108 as a Divine Number

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Gotra – A Scientific Reasoning

In the last article on Gotra we read about what is a Gotra, what are the various Gotra’s. In this write up let’s analyze why these Gotra’s were established and what is its scientific rationale. We all know that most Hindu families, marriage within the same gotra is prohibited since people with same gotra are siblings. Let’s look at reasons why this has been the practice for thousands of years amongst Sanatana Dharma. Gotra is always passed on from father to children among most Hindus, just like last name(surname) is passed on worldwide. Additional rule in the Gotra system is that, even if the Bride and Bridegroom belong to different Gotras, they’ still cannot get married even if just one of their Gotra Pravara matches.

It is generally a well accepted norm that women after marriage not only carry the last name of their spouse but also their Gotra. Why would they do this? Is there any scientific rationale for this practice which to many modern liberal thinker’s reeks of Male dominance. Truth is that its anything but that. Let’s analyze this further.

Genes & Chromosomes

Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and in each pair one Chromosome comes from the father and the other comes from the mother. So, in all we have 46 Chromosomes in every cell, of which 23 come from the mother and 23 from the father.

Of these 23 pairs, there is one pair called the Sex Chromosomes which decide the gender of the person. During conception, if the resultant cell has XX sex chromosomes, then the child will be a girl and if it is XY then the child will be a boy. X chromosome decides the female attributes of a person and Y Chromosome decides the male attributes of a person.

When the initial embryonic cell has XY chromosome, the female attributes get suppressed by the genes in the Y Chromosome and the embryo develops into a male child. Since only men have Y Chromosomes, son always gets his Y Chromosome from his father and the X Chromosome from his mother. On the other hand, daughters always get their X Chromosomes, one each from both father and mother.

So, the Y Chromosome is always preserved throughout a male lineage (Father – Son – Grandson) because a son always gets it from his father, while the X Chromosome is not preserved in the female lineage (Mother, Daughter, Grand Daughter) because it comes from both father and mother. A mother will pass either her mother’s X Chromosome to her Children or her father’s X Chromosome to her children or a combination of both because of both her X Chromosomes getting mixed (called as Crossover). On the other hand, a son always gets his father’s Y Chromosome and that too almost intact without any changes because there is no corresponding another Y chromosome in his cells to do any mixing as his combination is XY, while that of females is XX which hence allows for mixing as both are X Chromosomes.

Women never get this Y Chromosome in their body. And hence Y Chromosome plays a crucial role in modern genetics in identifying the Genealogy ie male ancestry of a person. And the Gotra system was designed to track down the root Y Chromosome of a person quite easily. If a person belongs to Kashyapa Gotra then it means that his Y Chromosome came all the way down over thousands of years of timespan from the Rishi Kashyap.

This is also the reason why females are said to belong to the Gotra of their husbands after marriage. That is because women do not carry Y Chromosome, and their Sons will carry the Y Chromosome of the Father and hence the Gotra of a woman is said to be that of her husband after marriage.

Shrinking size of Y Chromosome

Y is the only Chromosome which does not have a similar pair in the human body. The pair of the Y Chromosome in humans is X Chromosome which is significantly different from Y Chromosome. Even the size of the Y Chromosome is just about one third the size of the X Chromosome. In other words, throughout evolution the size of the Y Chromosome has been decreasing and it has lost most of its genes and has been reduced to its current size. Scientists are debating whether Y Chromosome will be able to survive for more than a few million years into the future or whether it will gradually vanish, and if it does so whether it will cause males to become extinct! Obviously because Y Chromosome is the one which makes a person male or a man.

A Y Chromosome must depend on itself to repair any of its injuries and for that it has created duplicate copies of its genes within itself. However, this does not stop DNA damages in Y Chromosome which escape its local repair process from being propagated into the offspring males. This causes Y Chromosomes to accumulate more and more defects over a prolonged period of evolution and scientists believe that this is what is causing the Y Chromosome to keep losing its weight continuously.

Y Chromosome which is crucial for the creation and evolution of males has a fundamental weakness which is denying it participation in the normal process of evolution via Chromosomal mix and match to create better versions in every successive generation, and this weakness MAY lead to the extinction of Y Chromosome altogether over the next few million years, and if that happens scientists are not sure whether that would cause males to become extinct or not. And that is because Scientists are not sure whether any other Chromosome in the 23 pairs will be able to take over the role of the Y Chromosome or not.

Now let’s look at a very contentious issue. Will humanity survive or it really does not matter if Males become extinct? The reality really may be that the females do not need the Y Chromosome to survive after all. Since all females have X Chromosomes, it may be possible to create a mechanism where X Chromosomes from different females are used to create offspring, say like injecting the nuclei from the egg of one female into the egg of another female to fertilize it and that would grow into a girl child.

Theoretically one may ask a few scientific hypothetical questions:

a)    Will the human body choose to go only a X Chromosome route?

b)    Will the human genome pick another chromosome from the group of 23 to conceptualize foetal union? 

c)    Will that human be a more advanced version?

The bottom line is yes, there is a strong possibility that humanity may still exist with only Females and Males may go extinct after all. A grim reminder to all.

Gotra System helps to protect the Y Chromosome from becoming extinct

Its only now in the 20th Century that the modern-day scientists have concluded that children born to parents having blood relation (like cousins) can have birth defects. But keep in mind this was known to the Ancient Rishi’s thousands of years before. For example, lets assume if there is a recessive defective gene in a Male / Female. What this means is, this defective gene can be expressed in the child and may lead to serious birth defects. It is also possible this defective gene may not be expressed for many generations because the corresponding gene in the pairing Chromosome is stronger and hence is preventing this abnormality causing gene from activating.

Now there are fair chances that his offspring’s will be carriers of these genes throughout successive generations. If they keep marrying outside this genetic imprint, there is a fair chance that the defective gene will remain inactive since others outside this person’s lineage most probably do not have that defective gene.

Now if after 5-10 generations down the line say one of his descendants marries some other descendant carrying this defective gene, then there is a possibility that both are still carrying the defective gene. In that case their children will have the defective gene express itself and cause the genetic abnormality in them as both the Chromosomes in the pair have the defective genes. Hence, the marriages between cousins always have a chance of causing an otherwise recessive, defective genes to express themselves resulting in children with genetic abnormalities.

So, thank our Ancient Rishis for creating the Gotra system where they barred marriage between a boy and a girl belonging to the same Gotra no matter how deep the lineage tree was, in a bid to prevent inbreeding and eliminate all recessive defective genes from the human DNA.

All I can say is we have to be amazed at such insights coming from our Ancient Rishi’s thousands of years before the Modern-Day scientists had figured it out.

Know your Gotra

In Hindu society, the term gotra means clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. However, all families having same gotra need not be cousins. Based on our ancient scriptures people’s castes (Brahmin, Kshatriya Vaishya, Shudra) were never determined based on lineage instead was based on the person’s abilities. That said this system of Gotras were started as a way of identifying one’s lineage from the 8 great Rishi’s of Sanatan Dharma. They can be descendants of sons or disciples or even adopted sons of the Rishi, who is the root and whose name is used as Gotra. For example, if a person says that he belongs to the Kashyap Gotra then it means that he traces back his male ancestry to the ancient Rishi Kashyap.

Gotra means cowshed (Go=Cow, tra=shed) in Sanskrit. Pāṇini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram (IV. 1. 162), which means “the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son.”

The assumption that this system was started by Brahmins for Brahmins needs to be looked into deeper and to assume that this system with a purpose to classify and identify the families in their own communities not amongst other castes is erroneous. Even the Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra all have own Gotras although many of them do not identify themselves. For examples the system of Gotras was probably forgotten amongst the Sri Lankans as they never mention this during their marriage ceremonies and priests often classify them under Shiv Gotra if one does not know their Gotras.

Hindu Brahmins identify their male lineage by considering themselves to be the descendants of the 8 great Rishis. So, the list of root Brahmin Gotras is as follows:

  • Angirasa
  • Atri
  • Gautam
  • Kashyapa
  • Bhrigu
  • Vasistha
  • Kutsa
  • Bharadwaja

The offspring of these eight are gotras and others than these are called gotrâvayava. These eight sages are called gotrakarins from whom all the 49 gotras (especially of the Brahmins) have evolved. For instance, from Atri sprang the Atreya and Gavisthiras gotras.

In almost all Hindu families, marriage within the same gotra is prohibited since people with same gotra are considered to be siblings. There are medical reasons for this, and this will be addressed in my next article.

Gotra is always passed on from father to children among most Hindus, just like last name(surname) is passed on worldwide. However, among Malayali’s and Tulu’s it is passed on from mother to children. Additional rule in the Gotra system is that, even if the Bride and Bridegroom belong to different Gotras, they still cannot get married even if just one of their Gotra Pravara matches.

Keep in mind the Gotra is a lineage, akin to a family name, but the given name of a family is often different from its gotra, and may reflect the traditional occupation, place of residence or other important family characteristic rather than the lineage. People belonging to a particular gotra may not be of the same caste in the Hindu social system. People of the same gotra are generally not allowed to marry. At weddings, the gotras of the bride and the groom are read aloud to verify that they are not breaking this rule.

Relevance of Gotra’s: The reason why these Gotra’s become more important for all of us is its deeper medical reasons why this needs to be followed. One must acknowledge the depths to which our Ancient Rishi’s have studied this system.

In my next article I would like to address the medical reasons why the Gotra classifications need to be followed especially during marriage.


About the author…
Compiled from various sources by Niranjan Kamath

Choodi Pooja

Choodi Pooja, is observed during Shravan month in Karnataka, and is of great importance to Konkani’s all over. In 2021, Shravan Month in Karnataka begins on August 9 and ends on September 7. Tulsi Plant and Lord Surya are worshipped during Choodi Pooja, which is observed on Fridays and Sundays in Shravana Maasa (month). The main ritual involves exchange of a small bouquet of flowers by married women.

Choodi is derived from the Kannada word ‘Soodi,’ which means a tied bundle. The main ritual involves arrangements of flowers and herbs in a small bundle. Usually a bundle will contain four to five flowers, Darba grass and two or three herbs. A sweet mixture of puffed rice, coconut and jaggery is prepared on the day and offered during puja. Some people prepare Panchakajjaya, a sweet made of five ingredients.

Locally available herbs and flowers are used to prepare the Chudi. Some of the common flowers and herbs used include Ratnagandhi, Shanka Pushpa, Darba Grass, Gauri Pushpa etc. The flowers are arranged with some artistic sense.

First a Tulsi Puja is done. Next is the worship of sun. The freshly prepared Choodi is offered to Tulsi. Next a puja is performed at the entrance of the house and this if followed by a Pooja in the Puja Room. Young women will offer Choodis to elderly women and take blessings. Elderly women will also gift young women with Choodis.

You can also watch the attached video link from our own community members performing Choodi Pooja and explaining the meaning behind why we celebrate choodi pooja.

Reference Links

Adapted from an article written by Abhilash Rajendran  Tuesday, August 13, 2019


Compiled from various sources by Niranjan Kamath


Gokarna Math Swamiji

Shree Samsthan Gokarna Partagali Jeevottam math is one of the three religious orders of the Gowd Saraswat Brahmin (GSB) community (the other two being Shree Kaivalya Math and Shree Kashi Math). HH Srimad Vidhyadiraja Theertha Swamiji  was the 23rd Swamiji at  the Gokarn Math lineage which is said to have been founded in 1475 AD and has a history of 546 years.

Srimad Vidyadhiraja Teertha Swamiji was born on August 3, 1945, at Gangoli, in Udupi district. His birth name was Raghavendra Acharya. He was given Sanyas Deeksha on February 26, 1967, at Shri Ram Mandir Wadala, Mumbai by his guru and predecessor, Shrimad Dwarakanath Teertha Swamiji. He succeeded as the head of the math following the demise of his guru on April 5, 1973, and thereafter tirelessly working for the spiritual upliftment of the followers, the prime duty cast on the maths. Under his leadership, numerous old temples and math branches were renovated and rebuilt. He is also credited with reviving the ancient modes of worship like yagas and yajnas and undertaking pilgrimages to holy places, including the remote part of the Himalayas. He has also headed the numerous charitable and educational endeavours of the math.

In Feb 2017 Swamiji anointed Sri Uday Bhat Sharma as his Shisya and successor, giving him the name Shri Vidhyadheesh Theertha.

Many of us may have had several interactions with our Pujiya Swami ji. I know I did when I was very small I was blessed by Swamiji at the Dwarkanatha Bhavan in Wadala after my Munji. He advised me to worship my parents and never to let them down. I will forever cherish those words.

Now H. H Srimad Vidyadhish Theerth Swamiji  will carry the Guru Shisya Parampara a tradition that dates back to when the Gokarn Math was started.

Given below are some of the precious video links to Swamiji’s pravachan on the History of Gokarn Math in his own blessed voice.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

Part 6

Part 7

Part 8

Part 9

Reference Links

Cover photo credits

daijiworld.com

gsbkonkani.net

Gokarn Math Wikipedia


Compiled from various sources by Niranjan Kamath